Aims: Although paclitaxel drug-coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty is an established endovascular treatment for peripheral artery disease, restenosis remains a major concern. Thus, we compared a novel paclitaxel-coated DCB with nano-coating technology with uncoated plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA).
Methods and results: This multicentre trial randomly assigned 171 patients with stenotic and occlusive lesions of the femoropopliteal artery to angioplasty with a novel DCB or uncoated POBA. The primary endpoint, late lumen loss at six months, was 0.92 mm lower in the DCB group (95% CI: −1.36 to −0.49 mm, p<0.001). Patients showed improved walking after DCB treatment at six months (p=0.021). In the DCB group, 44.6% and 50% of the patients improved by three Rutherford-Becker classification stages after six to 12 months, respectively (POBA: 27.8% and 36.8%, respectively). Only one patient needed TLR (1.3%) in the DCB group, compared to 14 patients (18.7%) in the POBA group after 12 months (relative risk [RR]=0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.53, p<0.001). Primary patency was 90.3% (DCB group) versus 65.3% (POBA group) after 12 months (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.14-1.67, p<0.001).
Conclusions: The novel DCB was effective and safe for inhibiting restenosis. Moreover, it demonstrated a better improvement in walking than POBA and showed no mortality concerns due to paclitaxel application after 12 months. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT02540018
Visual summary. Patient flow, Kaplan-Meier survival curves for primary patency, and change in Rutherford-Becker category over 12 months.