Percutaneous catheter-based closure of atrial septal defects (e.g., patent foramen ovale [PFO]) has been performed for more than 40 years and preceded percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) by a couple of years1. PFO closure was first described as a specific structural intervention in adult cardiology 26 years ago2. The clinical introduction of the AMPLATZER™ Septal Occluder (Abbott, Plymouth, MN, USA) on 10 September 1997, 21 years ago, turned this procedure into what has been the easiest intervention in adult cardiology with probably the best net yield ever since3.
The thought of a permanent implant into the heart in a predominantly preventive procedure (therapeutic ...
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