Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has rapidly evolved and changed the landscape of structural interventional cardiology. Advances in transcatheter heart valve (THV) prostheses and TAVI-enabling devices have simplified the procedure, reduced the risk of complications, improved short- and long-term outcomes and broadened the applications of TAVI, not only in challenging patients and complex anatomies but also in intermediate-risk or even in low-risk patients, where surgical valve replacement constitutes an effective and well-established therapy. In this review article, we provide an overview of the developments in TAVI devices which have played a vital role in TAVI evolution: we describe the prostheses that failed to reach clinical practice, we present the characteristics of the first valves that were tested in the clinical arena, we summarise the evidence from the first studies that highlighted the potential but also the limitations of TAVI, and we present the advanced next-generation THV prostheses that have an improved performance and safety profile.
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