Refractory angina is a growing problem, predominantly due to advanced coronary artery disease, associated with a reduced quality of life and an increased hospitalisation rate with a corresponding impact on healthcare resources. There is an unmet clinical need to be addressed by novel therapeutic approaches. Over the last few years, a treatment approach causing a controlled coronary sinus narrowing by implantation of a balloon-expandable, hourglass-shaped, stainless steel mesh (i.e., the coronary sinus Reducer) has arisen with promising initial short-term and midterm results, in terms of reducing angina and ischaemia burden and improving quality of life. Guidance with proper implantation algorithms and knowledge on how to address potential complications will improve interventional outcomes and foster a wider application of this novel therapeutic approach. In this review, we summarise the implantation technique, the causes of potential complications, and algorithms focusing upon their practical management, based on the experience of the authors.
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