Aims: We sought to investigate the incidence, predictors, and clinical outcomes of stent optimisation with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in long coronary lesions treated with new-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs).
Methods and results: From four randomised trials comparing IVUS and angiography guidance in long (≥26 mm) or chronic total occlusion coronary lesions, a total of 1,396 patients who underwent IVUS-guided intervention were classified into two groups (stent optimisation and non-optimisation) according to optimisation criteria (minimal stent area [MSA] ≥5.5 mm2 or 80% of mean reference lumen area [MLA]). Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) occurrence, defined as a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or target vessel revascularisation, was compared. Stent optimisation was not met in 578 (41%) patients. Predictors of non-optimisation were older age, longer lesion length, and smaller stent diameter. The MACE rate was significantly higher in the non-optimisation versus the stent optimisation group (4.8% vs 1.9%, log-rank p=0.002; adjusted hazard ratio 2.95, 95% CI: 1.43-6.06). Among possible combinations of absolute and relative expansion criteria, the one best predicting MACE was at least one of MSA ≥5.4 mm2 and/or ≥80% of MLA (Youden index=0.264).
Conclusions: Achieving stent optimisation using IVUS evaluation was associated with favourable outcomes in IVUS-guided, new-generation DES implantation for long coronary lesions including CTOs.