Aims: The aim of this study was to compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes in relation to stent optimisation profiles between in-stent chronic total occlusions (CTOs) and de novo CTOs.
Methods and results: We evaluated 1,516 consecutive patients who underwent PCI for 147 in-stent CTOs (9.3%) and 1,439 de novo CTOs between 2007 and 2018. The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF) consisting of a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularisation. The final post-stenting intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images were analysed. Target lesion complexity reflected by the Japanese CTO score was similar, albeit calcification was more prevalent in de novo CTOs, whereas occlusion length >20 mm was more frequent in in-stent CTOs. The technical success (88.4% vs 87.5%, p=0.84) and in-hospital adverse event (1.4% vs 3.6%, p=0.26) rates were similar between CTO types. Among those who received drug-eluting stents, the five-year TVF (11.0% vs 10.7%, p=0.99) and target vessel revascularisation (4.2% vs 3.7%, p=0.81) rates were similar between groups. Total stent length, minimum stent area (5.4±1.8 vs 5.5±1.8 mm2, p=0.77), and maximal plaque burden of the reference segments were largely comparable between groups.
Conclusions: In-stent CTO PCI with drug-eluting stents optimised by IVUS guidance offers as acceptable long-term clinical results as those achieved in de novo CTOs.