Interventions for valvular disease and heart failure

Five-year outcomes of mild paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

EuroIntervention 2022;18:33-42. DOI: 10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00784

Taishi Okuno
Taishi Okuno1, MD; Daijiro Tomii1, MD; Dik Heg2, PhD; Jonas Lanz1, MD, MSc; Fabien Praz1, MD; Stefan Stortecky1, MD; David Reineke3, MD; Stephan Windecker1, MD; Thomas Pilgrim1, MD, MSc
1. Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2. CTU Bern, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3. Department of Cardiac Surgery, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Background: Mild paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) remains a frequent and underappreciated adverse event after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) despite remarkable progress in device technology and implantation technique.

Aims: This study sought to investigate the impact of mild PVR after TAVI on five-year clinical outcomes.

Methods: In a prospective TAVI registry, PVR prior to discharge was retrospectively assessed in an echocardiographic core laboratory. Patients with ≥moderate PVR were excluded. Mild PVR was categorised into mild and mild-to-moderate PVR using a recently proposed unifying 5-class grading scheme.

Results: A total of 1,128 patients undergoing TAVI between 2007 and 2015 were enrolled. Of these, 560 patients had mild PVR, including 433 with mild (5-class) PVR and 127 with mild-to-moderate PVR. Patients with mild PVR were older (83 years vs 82 years, p=0.013) and had a higher surgical risk compared to patients with none/trace PVR (STS-PROM: 6.49±4.68 vs 5.41±3.48, p<0.001). At five years, patients with mild PVR had a higher risk of mortality than those with none/trace PVR (54.6% vs 43.8%; HRadjusted 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06-1.50). When applying the 5-class grading scheme, only mild-to-moderate PVR was associated with an increased risk of mortality at five years (mild PVR: HRadjusted 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.43, mild-to-moderate PVR: HRadjusted 1.56, 95% CI: 1.20-2.02). The effect of mild PVR on five-year mortality was consistent across major subgroups.

Conclusions: Mild PVR was associated with an increased risk of mortality at five years after TAVI. The detrimental effect was primarily driven by mild-to-moderate PVR using the 5-class grading scheme. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01368250.

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