The Official Journal of EuroPCR and the European Association of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (EAPCI)

Coronary interventions

Device entrapment during percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusions: incidence and management strategies

EuroIntervention 2021;17:212-219. DOI: 10.4244/EIJ-D-20-00781

1. IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy; 2. Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Turin, Italy; 3. Ospedale Niguarda, Milan, Italy; 4. Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Turin, Italy; 5. Ospedale Maggiore, Lodi, Italy; 6. Ospedale Moriggia-Pelascini, Gravedona (CO), Italy

Background: Equipment delivery in chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be challenging and it is associated with a higher risk of device entrapment. Data regarding the incidence of device entrapment during CTO PCI are lacking.

Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and procedural characteristics of device entrapment in patients undergoing PCI for CTOs and discuss management strategies for dealing with it.

Methods: Device entrapment was characterised in a large consecutive series of 2,361 CTO PCI cases performed by five high-volume CTO Italian operators between January 2015 and January 2020.

Results: Device entrapment occurred in 36 out of 2,361 cases (1.5%) and consisted of coronary guidewires in 13 (0.5%), microcatheters in 6 (0.2%), balloons in 6 (0.2%), rotational atherectomy burrs in 10 (0.4%) and guiding catheter extension in 1 patient (0.04%). Complete device retrieval was achieved in 63.9%, with at least partial removal of material in 97.2%. Vessel recanalisation was still possible in 86.1% of cases even after device entrapment. Intraprocedural myocardial infarction occurred in 3 patients (8.3%), tamponade with urgent pericardiocentesis in 1 (2.8%) and emergency surgical removal of the entrapped device in 1 patient (2.8%). Mean radiation dose was 4.7±2.3 Gy. At 30-day follow-up, one patient died with stent thrombosis of a non-target vessel and another required repeat percutaneous revascularisation.

Conclusions: Device entrapment during CTO revascularisations is a rare but potentially severe complication. We describe and discuss current techniques of percutaneous retrieval that can be employed to achieve procedural success safely.

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