1. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
Over the last decade, we have witnessed a considerable shift towards the use of surgical bioprostheses for aortic valve repair (irrespective of the patients’ age) due to their lower bleeding and thrombotic risk compared to mechanical prostheses1. Given that bioprosthetic valves tend to degenerate within 10 to 15 years, the number of patients with degenerated bioprostheses requiring re-treatment is likely to rise within the next few years1,2. Conventional redo surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), standardly used to treat failed surgical bioprostheses, carries an inherent risk associated with redo open heart surgery, with a perioperative mortality of up to 5%1,2.