Aims: Left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis is common in patients with cavopulmonary connections. Stent implantation is the treatment of choice but may be complicated or contraindicated by left main bronchus (LMB) compression due to limited retro-aortic space after a Damus-Kaye-Stansel (DKS) or Norwood operation. This study describes a novel double balloon technique of LPA stenting in patients at risk of LMB compression.
Methods and results: A cohort study was performed in 11 patients who underwent LPA stenting with an oval stent technique between 2015 and 2018. Retro-aortic anatomy was evaluated periprocedurally by three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA). Pre-existing LMB compression was demonstrated by 3DRA in seven out of eight patients who had undergone previous LPA stenting and in one patient without stenting. Primary ovalisation with immediate stent implantation on double balloons was performed in one patient. Ten patients had secondary ovalisation with single balloon stent implantation followed by the double balloon technique for ovalisation. The procedures were successful in all patients and guaranteed LMB patency without increasing pre-existing compression.
Conclusions: The 3DRA-guided oval stent technique with double balloon inflation is successful in treating LPA stenosis after a DKS or Norwood operation in patients at risk of bronchial compression, guaranteeing LMB patency without increasing pre-existing compression.