The Official Journal of EuroPCR and the European Association of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (EAPCI)

Linear concentration-response relationship of serum caffeine with adenosine-induced fractional flow reserve overestimation: a comparison with papaverine

DOI: 10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00453

1. Division of Cardiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan; 3. Department of Clinical Immuno Oncology, Clinical Research Institute for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4. Department of Hospital Pharmaceutics, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan

Background: Caffeine intake from one cup of coffee one hour before adenosine stress tests, corresponding to serum caffeine levels of 3-4 mg/L, is thought to be acceptable for non-invasive imaging.

Aims: We aimed to elucidate whether serum caffeine is independently associated with adenosine-induced fractional flow reserve (FFR) overestimation and their concentration-response relationship.

Methods: FFR was measured using adenosine (FFRADN) and papaverine (FFRPAP) in 209 patients. FFRADN overestimation was defined as FFRADN − FFRPAP. The locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) approach was applied to evaluate the relationship between serum caffeine level and FFRADN overestimation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine independent factors associated with FFRADN overestimation.

Results: Caffeine was ingested at <12 hours in 85 patients, at 12-24 hours in 35 patients, and at >24 hours in 89 patients. Multiple regression analysis identified serum caffeine level as the strongest factor associated with FFRADN overestimation (p<0.001). The LOWESS curve demonstrated that FFRADN overestimation started from just above the lower detection limit of serum caffeine and increased approximately 0.01 FFR unit per 1 mg/L increase in serum caffeine level with a linear relationship. The 90th percentile of serum caffeine levels for the ≤12-hour, the 12-24-hour, and the >24-hour groups corresponded to FFRADN overestimations by 0.06, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively.

Conclusions: Serum caffeine overestimates FFRADN values in a linear concentration-response manner. FFRADN overestimation occurs at much lower serum caffeine levels than those that were previously believed. Our results highlight that standardised caffeine control is required for reliable adenosine-induced FFR measurements.

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