Aims: We aimed to estimate the rate of renal artery adverse events following renal denervation with the most commonly applied radiofrequency catheter system based on a comprehensive review of published reports.
Methods and results: We reviewed 50 published renal denervation (RDN) trials reporting on procedural safety including 5,769 subjects with 10,249 patient-years of follow-up. Twenty-six patients with renal artery stenosis or dissection (0.45%) were identified of whom 24 (0.41%) required renal artery stenting. The primary meta-analysis of all reports indicated a 0.20% pooled annual incidence rate of stent implantation (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.29% per year). Additional sensitivity analyses yielded consistent pooled estimates (range: 0.17 to 0.42% per year). Median time from RDN procedure to all renal intervention was 5.5 months (range: 0 to 33 months); 79% of all events occurred within one year of the procedure. A separate review of 14 clinical trials reporting on prospective follow-up imaging using either magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or angiography following RDN in 511 total subjects identified just 1 new significant stenosis (0.20%) after a median of 11 months post procedure (one to 36 months).
Conclusions: Renal artery reintervention following renal denervation with the most commonly applied RF renal denervation system (Symplicity) is rare. Most events were identified within one year.