Infective endocarditis (IE) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new disease entity. The rate of IE after TAVI is similar to that after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), but mortality and prevalence of Enterococcus spp. as causing pathogens are significantly higher. Guidelines on infection prevention measures before TAVI procedures are currently lacking. We performed a structured review of the available data to provide interim recommendations based on guidelines to prevent infections issued by the World Health Organization as well as guidelines by professional societies from Europe and the USA. Such interim recommendations based on expert opinions are probably justified until large randomised trials provide strong evidence for infection control in TAVI, because IE after TAVI is often related to the TAVI procedure itself and the associated mortality rate is high. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be adapted from an intravenous cephalosporin to, e.g., amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, to cover enterococci. In addition, infection control should follow operating room standards as far as is reasonable, even if the evidence for this recommendation is very low. These recommendations are endorsed by the International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID).
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