Valve-in-valve (VinV) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a well-established therapy for patients with failed surgical bioprosthetic valves (BPV) who are at high risk for reoperation1. In the largest series to date, VinV TAVR demonstrated a one-year survival rate of 83.2%, which was similar to that of patients undergoing native aortic stenosis (AS) TAVR in high-risk populations2,3. Of note, in that series, most patients (53.4%) were treated with a second-generation balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve (THV), namely the SAPIEN XT THV (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA).
Over the decade since its introduction for the treatment of native AS, iterative modifications ...
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