Figure 1. Transseptal PVL closure: procedural steps. A) PVL approach using a 10 Fr steerable catheter. A 6 Fr JR guide catheter is inserted into the 10 Fr catheter; a coronary wire is used for crossing the leak and positioning a 2.5×12 mm Shockwave balloon (black arrow, B). C) TEE shows the Shockwave balloon (white arrow) and microbubbles generated by waves. D) An Occlutech PLD Occluder 8×4 mm (asterisk) is positioned through a 7 Fr catheter.
A 66-year-old female with heart failure was referred for treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by a paravalvular leak (PVL). She underwent four mitral valve ...
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