A number of interventional procedures based on the transseptal puncture (TSP) have been developed over the last years. The increasing number of interventional procedures, as well as the use of large-bore sheaths and complex devices, has led to improvements in technique and equipment. The combined use of fluoroscopy and of trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) has increased safety and precision. However, TSP still represents a tricky procedure, it may become even more difficult in case of challenging interatrial septa and life-threatening complications may occur. Consequently, a deep knowledge of procedural steps, equipment, echocardiographic views, fossa ovalis anatomy and most frequent complications management are critical to perform successful TSP.
2. University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
3. University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, Switzerland
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