Patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect closure

Mladen Pavlovic
Mladen Pavlovic, MD; Lutz Büllesfeld, MD; Bernhard Meier*, MD
Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal defects (ASDs) are both openings in the interatrial septum, but they differ substantially with respect to morphology and functional consequences. Accordingly, although technical tr

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